Posts in Category HF2LI

Sensor Characterization and Control

on 25.05.2020 at 08:00 by kivanc on Blog of Kivanç Esat
Sensors come with different flavors. They can be inertial devices for motion detection; can be based on photosensitive materials; can be absorbing surrounding molecules to detect their concentration, and so on. Developments in micromachining and micro/nanoelectromechanical system (MEMS/NEMS) technologies lead to miniaturization and low power consumption. Hence, multiple sensors […]

A deep dive into data acquisition with the DAQ tool

on 25.11.2019 at 14:21 by moritz on Blog of Moritz Kirste
Introduction Looking at the heart of experimental science you will find data acquisition. Why? Because even the most perfectly conceived experiment is worth nothing if nobody acquires, analyzes and stores data for further analysis and reproduction of results. Despite its […]

Frequency-Domain Response of Lock-in Filters

on 19.03.2019 at 18:10 by Mehdi on Blog of Mehdi Alem
Introduction  The response of a lock-in amplifier is characterized by the parameters of its low-pass filter (LPF), i.e. time constant and filter order. The temporal response of the LPF demonstrates the latency of measurement while its spectral response shows the […]

How to Demodulate Multi-frequency Signals such as AM, FM and PM

on 20.03.2018 at 13:26 by Mehdi on Blog of Mehdi Alem
Introduction  When analyzing signals with multiple frequency components, it is important to measure the amplitude and phase of each frequency component accurately so that a change in the characteristics of one component does not affect the measurement of another frequency component. There […]

Enhancing the Luminosity Quality of Sulfur Plasma Lamps by the HF2PLL Phase-Locked Loop

on 07.12.2017 at 14:11 by Mehdi on Blog of Mehdi Alem
Introduction The choice of technology in lighting industry requires a trade-off between color rendering and luminous efficacy because the spectral sensitivity of the human eye varies with wavelength. As sustainable development has become a priority, the manufacturing industry of lighting […]

Noise Analysis of Signal Components

on 29.03.2017 at 13:57 by Mehdi on Blog of Mehdi Alem
Introduction  In this post, the relation between the noise of signal amplitude and phase on one hand and the noise of in-phase and quadrature components of the signal on the other hand is investigated. We try to respond to the wrong […]

Time-Domain Response of Lock-in Filters

on 09.02.2017 at 08:36 by Mehdi on Blog of Mehdi Alem
Introduction  The heart of a lock-in amplifier is a phase-sensitive detector which includes a signal mixer and a low-pass filter. In this post, we focus on the time response of the low-pass filters implemented in Zurich Instruments lock-in amplifiers including […]

Dynamic suppression of unwanted frequency components with an HF2LI

on 26.06.2015 at 14:17 by Paolo Navaretti on Blog of Paolo Navaretti
There are many experimental situations in which the component of interest in a signal is not the strongest one, but some other related component, for instance the side bands in amplitude or frequency modulated signals. In such a case, the […]

Demodulating down to DC with HF2LI

on 18.11.2014 at 09:52 by Jelena on Blog of Jelena Trbovic
Many of our customers use the possibility to measure DC voltage and current, together with an ac signal by setting the demodulation frequency ω=0. The measured value is seemingly incorrect as you need to divide the obtained rms value with […]