Posts in Category UHFLI

Get additional insights into your setup with the MF-DIG option

on 08.11.2020 at 15:50 by Jelena on Blog of Jelena Trbovic
Lock-in amplifiers are at their best when rejecting the noise and increasing the signal-to-noise ratio. When the setup is well characterized the measurements are carried out at a single frequency and measured against external parameters. Throughout the measurement, detailed noise […]

How to Retrieve the Carrier Frequency of Phase-Modulated or Carrier-Suppressed Signals with Costas Loops

on 08.11.2020 at 13:43 by Mehdi on Blog of Mehdi Alem
Introduction  Phase-locked loops (PLLs) are widely used to recover the frequency of a carrier signal in many detection systems such as lock-in amplifiers and data receivers. In order to properly lock to the carrier phase and extract its frequency, a […]

Webinar Summary – Boost Your SPM Applications: From Kelvin Probe to Time-Resolved Measurements

on 19.10.2020 at 17:03 by Romain Stomp on Blog of Romain Stomp
Following up on the webinar dedicated to Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy (KPFM) techniques, I’d like to post a short summary in this blog as well as answers to most questions raised during this event. The recording of this webinar can […]

Nanostructure Transport Characterization Webinar

on 25.05.2020 at 11:31 by Jelena on Blog of Jelena Trbovic
First of all thank you everyone for attending the Nanostructure Transport Characterization Webinar! It was my first Webinar and it was an amazing experience for the whole team. We got a lot of questions and in this blog I will […]

Sensor Characterization and Control

on 25.05.2020 at 08:00 by kivanc on Blog of Kivanç Esat
Sensors come with different flavors. They can be inertial devices for motion detection; can be based on photosensitive materials; can be absorbing surrounding molecules to detect their concentration, and so on. Developments in micromachining and micro/nanoelectromechanical system (MEMS/NEMS) technologies lead to miniaturization and low power consumption. Hence, multiple sensors […]

How to reduce noise floor and improve SNR by employing cross-correlation techniques

on 19.05.2020 at 15:30 by Jithesh Srinivas on Blog of Jithesh Srinivas
Ultra-sensitive voltage measurements is a crucial requirement for applications such as quantum device characterization [1]. Weak signals become easily obscured by thermal noise, especially that coming from the measurement apparatus; this increases the noise floor [2] and determines a lower […]

A deep dive into data acquisition with the DAQ tool

on 25.11.2019 at 14:21 by moritz on Blog of Moritz Kirste
Introduction Looking at the heart of experimental science you will find data acquisition. Why? Because even the most perfectly conceived experiment is worth nothing if nobody acquires, analyzes and stores data for further analysis and reproduction of results. Despite its […]

How to Generate QAM Signaling with the HDAWG Arbitrary Waveform Generator

on 25.11.2019 at 12:24 by Mehdi on Blog of Mehdi Alem
Introduction  Digital modulation is extensively used in telecommunications, radar systems and quantum technologies. Corresponding to every analog modulation technique, i.e. amplitude modulation (AM), phase modulation (PM) and frequency modulation (FM), there is a digital version of signal modulation: amplitude-shift keying […]

Frequency-Domain Response of Lock-in Filters

on 19.03.2019 at 18:10 by Mehdi on Blog of Mehdi Alem
Introduction  The response of a lock-in amplifier is characterized by the parameters of its low-pass filter (LPF), i.e. time constant and filter order. The temporal response of the LPF demonstrates the latency of measurement while its spectral response shows the […]

How to Demodulate Multi-frequency Signals such as AM, FM and PM

on 20.03.2018 at 13:26 by Mehdi on Blog of Mehdi Alem
Introduction  When analyzing signals with multiple frequency components, it is important to measure the amplitude and phase of each frequency component accurately so that a change in the characteristics of one component does not affect the measurement of another frequency component. There […]

Generation of Single-Sideband Modulation by Arbitrary Waveform Generators

on 15.12.2017 at 17:32 by Mehdi on Blog of Mehdi Alem
Introduction  I/Q modulations are extensively used in a variety of applications including telecommunications, quantum computing (QC), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and band-excitation atomic force microscopy (AFM). In this post, we demonstrate how to generate such signals using Arbitrary […]

Noise Analysis of Signal Components

on 29.03.2017 at 13:57 by Mehdi on Blog of Mehdi Alem
Introduction  In this post, the relation between the noise of signal amplitude and phase on one hand and the noise of in-phase and quadrature components of the signal on the other hand is investigated. We try to respond to the wrong […]

RF Reflectometry Measurements of Quantum Dots

on 20.02.2017 at 16:11 by brunok on Blog of Bruno Küng
Introduction Characterizing semiconductor spin qubits with radio-frequency (RF) reflectometry offers a speed advantage over low-frequency conductance measurements thanks to insensitivity to 1/f noise. In this blog post, the measurements of Josip Kukučka and his colleagues working at the Nanoelectronics group at […]

Compensating delay-induced phase shifts for high-frequency resonators

on 20.02.2017 at 14:31 by Romain Stomp on Blog of Romain Stomp
Phase-Locked Loop (PLL) or other PID controllers on nano-mechanical resonators rely on clean phase signals that exhibit large slope, or significant phase shift, around the resonance frequency. For really high-frequency NEMS and opto-mechanical systems above a few tens or hundreds […]

Time-Domain Response of Lock-in Filters

on 09.02.2017 at 08:36 by Mehdi on Blog of Mehdi Alem
Introduction  The heart of a lock-in amplifier is a phase-sensitive detector which includes a signal mixer and a low-pass filter. In this post, we focus on the time response of the low-pass filters implemented in Zurich Instruments lock-in amplifiers including […]